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Protozoan disease of pigs, which is characterized by damage to buy ramipril online, is accompanied by diarrhea, exhaustion and death of animals.
Most often sick piglets under the age of 2 months. Sick piglets lag behind in growth and development. In various countries, the death of piglets can reach 20-50%. Especially many animals die with simultaneous infection with eimeria, trepanema, salmonella, Escherichia coli, Trichomonas, helminths. The causative agent of the disease is the parasitic protozoan Isospora suis, which belongs to the river. Isospora, fam. Eimeriidae, cl. Sporozoa. It should be noted that the representatives Isospora are widely distributed in nature. Currently, about 200 species of isospores are known, although only 6 were described in the 60s. In appearance, they resemble eimerium. According to AI Yatusevich, oocysts are round or oval, colorless. The shell is smooth, two-layer, has 1-2 light-refracting bodies.
Size 21.09 ± 0.57 - 19.08 ± 0.02 µm. Shape index - 1.13 ± 0.02. The duration of sporogony was 6.23 ± 6.5 hours, the pre-patent period was 183 ± 3.25, the patent period was 213.7 ± 6.22 hours. It is a highly patented species. Development proceeds in the same way as in eimeria. However, the process of sporogony ends with the formation of two sporocysts, each of which contains 4 sporozoites.
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The disease is widespread. In a study of 24 pig farms, parasites were detected in 50 ± 25 - 83.3 ± 15.22% of farms and complexes. In pig-breeding complexes with a capacity of 54-108 thousand heads, isosporosis was found in all farms. The disease is especially often recorded in the summer-spring and summer-autumn periods. The main source of infection is adult pigs, among which parasites are widely found. The parasite enters healthy animals through feed, water, and care items contaminated with oocysts. Contribute to buy altace for sale of invasion poor conditions for animals, irregular cleaning of manure, lack of disinfestation of the external environment. The pathogenic effect is manifested from the first days after infection. So, in the experiment, already on the 3rd day after infection of piglets, the activity of alkaline phosphatase in their blood decreases by 23.3% (p o C of frost to 18-29 o C of heat, oocysts remain viable for at least 3 weeks.
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To animals or humans, oocysts enter with food, water, inhaled air.In the intestine, the oocyst membrane is destroyed, and sporozoites come out into the lumen.They migrate to enterocytes, reach the microvilli zone and linger at the border of the epithelial cell, without penetrating, however, into the cytoplasm.Then comes the process of merogony, which is replaced by gametogenesis. As a result of copulation of gametes, a zygote is formed, which becomes covered with a membrane and turns into an oocyst.
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The process of sporulation in cryptosporidium occurs even during intracellular localization, before release into the external environment. The entire development process of cryptosporidium takes 4-7 days. Oocysts can often cause autoinvasion , causing a chronic course of cryptosporidiosis.The duration of ramipril pills period is 2-14 days.Mammalian cryptosporidium are known mainly as intestinal parasites. However, according to Beyer T.W. et al. (1987), they are also found in other organs and tissues, fluids (sputum, bronchial mucus, vomit).
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The natural reservoir of cryptosporidium is most often calves, lambs, piglets, etc. With cryptosporidiosis, the fecal-oral mechanism of spread of the pathogen predominates. Pathogenesis and immunity have not been studied. Clinical signs of the disease. Parasites cause intestinal inflammation. The disease is acute. Patients have diarrhea, theylose weight, refuse food. The disease is especially severe in animals with immunodeficiency, while they can die. In humans, cryptosporidiosis occurs acutely (more often in children) and chronically with symptoms of gastroenteritis (fever, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea). In the pathoanatomical examination of corpses, the main changes are found in the small intestine. The mucous membrane is reddened, covered with mucus. The content in the intestine is usually absent. Enlarged mesenteric nodes.
To diagnose cryptosporidiosis, it is necessary to find oocysts in the intestinal contents. The simplest way is to stain smears with carbol fuchsin according to Ziehl-Nielsen or safranin according to Koestler. After Ziehl-Nielsen staining, cryptosporidium are pale pink in color and are clearly visible against a green background. You can stain smears with azure-eosin according to Romanovsky. Cryptosporidium oocysts are visible as unstained or weakly stained formations, 4-6 µm in diameter. For staining, you can also use a 1% solution of altace usa, a 1% aqueous solution of gentian violet or a 1% solution of methylene blue in a 1% solution of boric acid.